History of Wonogiri Regency The name Wonogiri cannot be separated from the figure of Raden Mas Said or better known as Pangeran Sambernyawa. Why is that? The beginning of Wonogiri was inseparable from Raden Mas Said's struggle against Dutch colonialism. Who is Raden Mas Said? He was born in Kartasura, Sunday Legi, on the 4th of Ruwah 1650 years Jimakir, Windu Adi Wuku Wariagung, or to coincide with the date of AD 8 April 1725. Raden Mas Said is the son of Kanjeng Pangeran Aryo Mangkunegoro and Raden Ayu Wulan who died while giving birth to him. When he was two years old, Raden Mas Said had to lose his father because he was exiled by the Dutch to Tanah Kaap (Ceylon) or Sri Lanka. As a result of incitement and slander Kanjeng Ratu and Patih Danurejo. As a result, Raden Mas Said experienced a childhood that was far from being a royal court. Raden Mas Said also spent his childhood with the children of other courtiers, so he understood very well how the life of the alitites. The wisdom behind that is what forged Raden Mas Said to be someone who has a caring nature for others and high togetherness because of his closeness to the courtiers who are ordinary people. One time Raden Mas Said was restless, because in the Palace there was an injustice committed by the King (Paku Buwono II) who placed Raden Mas Said only as Gandhek Anom (Manteri Anom) or equal to Abdi Dalem Manteri.
Whereas in accordance with his degree and position, Raden Mas Said should have been Prince Sentana. Seeing this, Raden Mas Said wanted to complain about the injustice to the King, but the Patih Kartasura responded coldly. Even the thing that made him hurt was that without saying anything the Patih gave himself a bag of gold to Raden Mas Said. The Patih's behavior made Raden Mas Said embarrassed and very angry, because he wanted to demand justice not to beg. Not only did Raden Mas Said suffer the same fate, it turned out that his uncles Ki Wiradiwangsa and Raden Sutawijaya also suffered the same fate. Before finally Raden Mas Said decided to leave the palace and fight against the King. Raden Mas Said and his followers began to wander in search of a safe area to regain strength. Raden Mas Said and his followers arrived in an area and began to hold meetings to regroup and establish a government even though it was still very simple. That day, Wednesday Kliwon 3 Rabiulawal (Mulud), the year of Jumakir windu Sengoro, with the sengkala chorus of Angrasa Retu Ngoyag Jagad or 1666 in the Javanese calendar. And in the calculation of the Gregorian calendar it coincides with Kliwon Wednesday, May 19, 1741 AD.
This stone was later known as Watu Gilang, which is the starting place for Raden Mas Said's struggle against injustice and all forms of colonialism. Together with his loyal followers, a core force was formed and then developed into capable war officers as Punggowo Baku Kawandoso Joyo. The support from the people of Nglaroh for Raden Mas Said's struggle was also very high, which Kyai Wiradiwangsa, who was appointed as Patih, was shunned. From there the beginning of a form of government which later became the forerunner of Wonogiri Regency. In controlling his struggle, Raden Mas Said issued a motto that has become a lifelong pledge known as the oath of "Kawulo Gusti" or "Pamoring Kawulo Gusti" as the binding of the inner rope between the leader and the people, melted in words and deeds, advancing in a harmonious pace like a large family that the enemy is difficult to scatter. The pledge reads "Tiji tibeh, Mati Siji Mati Kabeh, Mukti Siji Mukti Kabeh". This is the concept of togetherness between the leadership and the people led and among the people. Raden Mas Said also created a government management concept known as Tri Darma, namely: Mulat Sarira Hangrasa Wani, which means daring to die in battle because in battle there are only two choices of life or death. Dare to act in facing trials and challenges even though in reality it is hard to carry out. Conversely, when receiving a gift in the form of property or other gifts, it must be received in a reasonable manner. Hangrasa Wani, want to share happiness with others. Rumangsa Melu Handarbeni, which means feeling like owning the area, is embedded in the deepest heart, so that in the end it will create a feeling of willingness to fight and work for the region. Caring for and preserving the wealth contained therein. Mandatory Melu Hangrungkebi, meaning that by feeling a sense of belonging arises the awareness to fight to the last drop of blood for his homeland. There is no doubt that Raden Mas Said's persistence in fighting his enemies, even with only a few soldiers, will not be afraid to fight the enemy.
The area that Raden Mas Said was aiming at at that time was Dusun Nglaroh (Selogiri Subdistrict), and there Raden Mas Said used a stone to strategize against injustice.
Raden Mas Said is a capable warlord, proven during his life that he has done no less than 250 battles without suffering significant defeats. From this, Raden Mas Said got the nickname "Pangeran Sambernyawa" because he was considered to be the spreader of death (Penyambar Nyawa) for anyone his enemy in every battle. Thanks to Raden Mas Said's tenacity and toughness in combat and guerrilla tactics, the area of his struggle expanded to include Ponorogo, Madiun and Rembang and even to the Yogyakarta area. In the end, at the persuasion of Sunan Paku Buwono III, Raden Mas Said was willing to be invited to the negotiating table to end the fighting. In the negotiations involving Sunan Paku Buwono III, Sultan Hamengkubuwono I and the Dutch Company, it was agreed that Raden Mas Said would have the power and be appointed as Adipati Miji or independently entitled Kanjeng Gusti Pangeran Adipati Arya (KGPAA) Mangkunegoro I. The determination of Raden Mas Said's territory took place on March 17, 1757 through an agreement in the Salatiga area. His position as Adipati Miji is parallel to the position of Sunan Paku Buwono III and Sultan Hamengkubuwono I with the territory covering the Keduwang area (the eastern part of Wonogiri), Honggobayan (the northeast area of Wonogiri City to the border of Jatipurno and Jumapolo, Karanganyar Regency), Sembuyan (the area around Wuryantoro and Baturetno), Matesih, and Gunung Kidul.KGPAA Mangkunegoro I divides the area of Wonogiri Regency into 5 (five) regions, each of which has its own characteristics or characteristics that are used as a method for developing leadership strategies, namely:
The Nglaroh area (the northern part of Wonogiri, now belongs to the Selogiri sub-district). The nature of the people of this area is Bandol Ngrompol which means that they are strong spiritually and physically, have a grouping or gathering character. These characteristics are very positive in relation to building unity and integrity. The people in the Nglaroh area are also brave, like to fight, make a fuss but if they can take advantage of the potential of the people of Nglaroh, they can become a strong basic force for the struggle. The Sembuyan area (the southern part of Wonogiri, now Baturetno and Wuryantoro), has the character of Kendho's Curse which means obedient, easy to command by the leadership or has a paternalistic nature. The Wiroko area (the area along the Wiroko River or the southeastern part of Wonogiri Regency is now part of the Tirtomoyo District). The people in this area have the character of the Saranggon Kethek, have similarities such as the nature of monkeys who like to live in groups, are difficult to control, are easily offended and do not pay attention to good manners. If approached they sometimes don't want to respect others, but if they are shunned they will get hurt. The term is tricky. The Keduwang area (the eastern part of Wonogiri) has a character as Lemah Bang Gineblegan. This property is like clay which can be solid and can be formed when tapped. The people of this area are extravagant, extravagant and difficult to carry out orders. However, for a leader who knows and understands their character traits and characteristics, like being able to pat like clay, they will be easily directed to something useful. The Honggobayan area (the northeast area of Wonogiri City to the border of Jatipurno and Jumapolo, Karanganyar Regency) has characters like Asu Galak Ora Nyathek. The characteristics of the people here are likened to a wild dog that likes to bark but doesn't like to bite. At first glance, from their speech and language, the people of Honggobayan are indeed rough and harsh, showing an arrogant and arrogant and arrogant character, and what seems like a frightening rude character. However, they are actually kindhearted, orders from the leadership will be carried out with full responsibility. By understanding the character of these areas, Raden Mas Said applies different ways of governing and controlling the people in his territory, exploring the maximum potential for progress in developing the region. Raden Mas Said ruled for approximately 40 years and died on December 28, 1795.